Wednesday, December 4, 2019

My views on Civil Disobedience Essay Example For Students

My views on Civil Disobedience Essay Henry David Thoreau takes his views of government and expresses them through this essay. He starts off by saying I heartily accept the motto, That government is best which governs least' I disagree with this quote, although, too much power to the government is never a good thing either. With no government people are free to do what they want, and there would be no direct way to communicate with foreign nations. Thoreau says it will work when people are prepared for it, but its not in human nature to be that good willed. Every person has faults and will eventually get the urge to steal something, or hurt somebody. Henry David Thoreau then goes on to talk about how the government can do what they want. He uses the Mexican war as an example, and says that most people would not agree with their decision. Governments show thus how successfully men can be imposed on. I disagree with this quote also because I feel it is one-sided. The American government is a democracy and the people have a great say in what happens. The way Thoreau describes it makes it sound like a dictatorship, where the people have no say, and no rights. He constantly says that the government is expedient. Thoreau thinks that the government does what they want and it is in the best interest for themselves. This is not true because almost everything that may benefit the government, benefits the rest of the nation as well. they would deserve to be classed and punished with those mischievous persons who put obstructions on the railroads. Thoreau thinks the government has done so much wrong that they should be punished the way actual criminals are punished. To me, this seems a little bit harsh because the government never intentionally hurt anybody. .

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Religion and Environmental Ethics free essay sample

In the paper he wrote Christianity bears a huge burden of guilt and concludes that Hence we shall continue to have a worsening ecologic crisis until we reject the Christian axiom that nature has no reason for existence save to serve man. White depicted Western Christianity as seeing the world existing primarily for the benefit of man, and man, bearing Gods image and sharing in great measure Gods transcendence of nature, exploit nature for his proper ends according to Gods will. This thesis of White shall be referred to as Dominion Hypothesis for ease of identification in this paper. But are the claims in his Dominion Hypothesis valid? Does Christianity bear a burden of guilt for the ecological crisis of the world? The purpose of this paper is to assess the strength of his thesis by firstly analysing what the biblical scriptures and theologians have to say with regard to the relationship of God, man and the environment. We will write a custom essay sample on Religion and Environmental Ethics or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Next the symptoms and origins of our ecological crisis are examined, after which their ties with Western Christianity are assessed to determine whether the later has causal relationship with the former. Finally, after arriving at the conclusion, some recommendations are presented. 1 Whites Thesis Whites thesis can briefly be summarized as: All forms of life modify their contexts, and the human race has in one sense simply done this more than others. However, the human impact on the environment, whilst frequently detrimental in the past, was given an added impetus by Christianity in its Westernized form. Western society, as a product of Westernized Christianity, inherits an exploitative attitude to the natural world which is the key to our present ecological crisis. (Richardson, 1998) . White depicted Western Christianity as seeing the world existing primarily for the benefit of man, and it is according to Gods will that man exploit nature for his proper ends. Biblical verses that align to the Dominion Hypothesis Arguably the following passages from the Bible are aligned to the Dominion Hypothesis and are most frequently cited by ecology critics of the Bible. Then God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of trhe air, and over the the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thinng that creeps upon the earth So god created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. And God blessed them, and God said to them Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over every living thing that moves upon the earth. And God said, Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food. (Gen. 1:26-29) Yet thou has made him little less than God, and dost crown him with glory and honor. Thous hast given him dominion over the works of thy hands; thous hast put all things under his feet; all sheep and oxen, and also the beasts of the field, the birds of the air, and the fish of the sea, whatever passes along the paths of the sea. (Ps. 8:5-8) 2 And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them, Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth. The fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every bird of the air, upon everything that creeps on the ground and all the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered. Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you; and as I gave you the green plants, I give you everything. (Gen. 9:1-3) You have made them to be a kingdom and priests serving our God, and they will reign on earth (Rev. 5:10). According to exegeses by theology scholar (Hiebert, 1996), the term dominion, from the Hebrew verb radah, implies that it grants humans the right and responsibility to rule, to govern the rest of creation. It connotes a hierarchy of power and authority in which the human race is positioned above the rest of the natural world, although the verb radah does not itself define how this dominion is to be exercised, whether benevolently or malevolently. The laws of Leviticus, when they stipulate that household servants are not to be *ruled* harshly (Lev. 25:43, 46, 53), imply that this kind of dominion may be kind and humane. Yet the use of radah in the context of international relations, where it is more commonly employed, carries a decidedly more antagonistic tinge, since it signifies rule over one*s enemies. It occurs frequently in descriptions of military conquest, where it is paired with such verbs as *destroy* (Num. 24:19) and *strike down* (Lev. 26:17; Isa. 14:6). When used of the Israelite king, radah always refers to dominion over his enemies, not to rule over his own Israelite subjects, for which the verb malak, *reign,* is the usual term. Similar conclusions may be drawn about the phrase *subdue the earth* in Gen. :28. The verb *subdue,* from the Hebrew kavash, depicts a hierarchical relationship in which humans are positioned above the earth and are granted power and control over it. The verb kavash is even more forceful than radah, describing the actual act of subjugation, of forcing another into a subordinate position. It is used for military conquest, where the same phrase used in Gen. 1:28 , *subdue the earth/land,* can be employed to depict the destruction and occupation of conquered territory (Num. 32:22, 29). It is also used of the king*s forcing his people into slavery against God*s wishes (Jer. 4:11, 16), and of rape (Esther 7:8; Neh. 5:5). In many of these cases, the abuse {19} of power is patently obvious. 3 Biblical verses that align to the Eco-Friendly perspective On the other hand, the following verses can be interpreted as being aligned to an EcoFriendly view:Let the heavens be glad, and let the earth rejoice; let the sea roar, and all that fills it; let the field exult, and everything in it! Then shall all the trees of the forest sing for joy before the LORD, for he comes, for he comes to judge the earth. He will judge the world in righteousness, and the peoples in his faithfulness. (Psalm 96:11-13) Praise the LORD! Praise the LORD from the heavens; praise him in the heights! Praise him, all his angels; praise him, all his hosts! Praise him, sun and moon, praise him, all you shining stars! Praise him, you highest heavens, and you waters above the heavens! Let them praise the name of the LORD! For he commanded and they were created. And he established them forever and ever; he gave a decree, and it shall not pass away. a Praise the LORD from the earth, you great sea creatures and all deeps, fire and hail, snow and mist, stormy wind fulfilling his word! Mountains and all hills, fruit trees and all cedars! Beasts and all livestock, creeping things and flying birds! Kings of the earth and all peoples, princes and all rulers of the earth! Young men and maidens together, old men and children! Let them praise the name of the LORD, for his name alone is exalted; his majesty is above earth and heaven. (Psalm 148:1-13) *When you besiege a city a long time, to make war against it in order to capture it, you shall not destroy its trees by swinging an axe against them; for you may eat from them, and you shall not cut them down. For is the tree of the field a man, that it should [m]be besieged by you? Only the trees which you known are not fruit trees you shall destroy and cut down, that you may construct siegeworks against the city that is making war with you until it falls. (Deuteronomy 20:19-20) *When you enter the land and plant any kind of fruit tree, regard its fruit as forbidden. For three years you are to consider it forbidden; it must not be eaten. In the fourth year all its fruit will be holy, an offering of praise to the Lord. But in the fifth year you may eat its fruit. In this way your harvest will be increased. I am the Lord your God. (Leviticus 19:2325) You shall not let your cattle breed with a different kind; you shall not sow your field with two kinds of seed; nor shall there come upon you a garment of cloth made of two kinds of stuff. (Leviticus 19:19) For six years you shall sow your land and gather in its yield; but the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of your people may eat; and what they leave the wild beasts may eat. (Exodus 23: 10-11) 5 The nations were angry, and your wrath has come. The time has come for judging the dead, and for rewarding your servants the prophets and your people who revere your name, both great and small * and for destroying those who destroy the earth. * (Rev 11:18) For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. (Rev 19:2) They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain, for the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea. (Isaiah 11:9) The wolf and the lamb will feed together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox, but dust will be the serpents food. They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain, says the LORD. (Isaiah 65:25) Theology scholars commenting on this view of nature of the Old Testament wrote : It is therefore fair to conclude that nature is far from de-animated in Biblical thought. (Wybrow, 1990), The natural world may not be see n as sacred or divine in the Bible, but it is certainly not dead, lifeless, and outside the divine moral framework here are no scriptures suggesting that nature was viewed as dead matter to be manipulated by man.. (Kinsley, 1995). Referring to the theme of the kingdom of God running through the New Testament, Zerbe (1992) argues that the New Testament has significant ecological implications, he explained: Isaiah*s vision of restored humanity and nature climaxes with the statement that there will no longer be any hurt or destruction in creation (Isa. 11:9; 65:25). And John*s vision of judgment states that those who destroy the earth will themselves be destroyed (Rev. 11:18; 19:2). It is noteworthy that the prophetic critique of Rome in Rev. 17:1-19:4 closely connects greed and the earth*s destruction: the insatiable desire for consumption and wealth is what results in the destruction of people and the earth. The corresponding passages are as quoted above. 6 Alternative view: Dominion Theology in Genesis 1 vs. Dependence Theology in Genesis 2 And lastly, but most importantly, consider the following two verses, both from Genesis 2:Then the Lord God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. (Genesis 2:7) The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it. (Genesis 2:15) What is very important to the discussion in this paper is that according to Hiebert (1996), as evident in the above verses, Genesis 2 presents an alternative to the dominion theology of Genesis 1, which he calls dependence theology. His thesis being that the first human is made of the same arable soil as are all of other forms of life; and the divine breath into which his nostrils blown is the same with which all the animals live and breathe (Gen. :7; 7:22). The role of the human in the earth described is not that of mastery but of servanthood. In this account of creation, the theology of the human place in creation is not a theology of dominion but a theology of dependence (Hiebert, 1996). This theology is evident in other parts of Scripture, examples including Psalm 104 and the Book of Job (McKibben,1994). According to Hiebert: In this tradition (Genesis 2), the human being is positioned very differently within the world of nature. Here the archetypal human is made not in the image of God but out of topsoil, out of the arable land that was cultivated by Israelite farmers (Gen. 2:7). As a result of this kind of creation, humans hold no distinctive position among living beings, since plants and animals also were produced from this same arable soil (2:9, 19). Moreover, the role assigned humans within creation in this story is not to rule (radah) and to subdue (kavash) but rather to {23} *serve* (avad; Gen. 2:15; 3:23). The Hebrew term avad is properly translated *till* in these verses (NRSV), since it clearly refers to the cultivation of arable land. But avad is in fact the ordinary Hebrew verb *serve,* used of slaves serving masters and of humans serving God (Gen. 12:16; Exod. 4:23). , the conflicts of Genesis I and Genesis 2 notwithstanding, there are lots of thesis arguing that there is no inconsistency between the two chapters and the ouvert differences are due to different ways in recapitulation only . (Young, 1960),(Archer, 1964),(Kitchen,1966) On another plane of our discussion, we shall now turn to a brief discussion of the historical origins of our ecological crisis. 7 The Historical Origins of our Ecological Crisis There is general consensus that the planet earth is heading towards environmental catastrophe due to alarming development at different fronts: the green house effect, acid rain, damage to ozone layer, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, chemical pollution, freshwater shortage, etc. , amongst others. (Magdoff Foster, 2011).. But how did all these pollutions started? according to Thorsheim (2006), in his book The Invention of Pollution, it all started with the use of fossil energy, which was conducive to the Industrial Revolution. The first largescale commercial use of fossil energy was coal in Britain in the 1800s, which he referred to as a Faustian bargain for Britain, since on the one hand it helped to bring tremendous wealth, advance and power to the country, whilst on the other coal also filled the air with immense smoke and acidic vapors, which was one of the origins of what we now call the green house effect and acid rain. Fossil oil as energy had also been popularized ever since Edwin L. Drake drilled the first oil well in 1853, but the impact on the environment is equally as detrimental as Coal, if not more so. The fossil energy application was conducive to the Industrial Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution had led to the advance in comfort, convenience and enjoyment, from dwelling comfort to transport convenience to material needs, leading to the abundance and later overabundance in supply of products. Consumerism in the past decades had eventually been invented in order to help us to recognize our needs, and due to the needs for growth of enterprises, some products have also began to be designed with built-in obsolescence. All these initiatives had contributed to the generation of ever more wastes than in the centuries before the industrial revolution, much more than can be sinked by the earth, which contributed to the chemical pollution of soil, water, which has also altered the bio-diversity of the Earth. 8 Ever since the Industrial Revolution, the consumption of energy has experienced exponential growth (see figure 1. 1). Concomitantly, different kind of detrimental impacts had been inflicted upon the ecology of the earth (see figure 1. 2). As an in-depth analysis of our ecological crisis is out of the scope of this paper, focus is now centred on the origin of the crisis, viz. the advent of fossil energy application, which shall be discussed below. Some key developments relating to fossil energy application:1665 Invention of the first modern industrial steam engine by English inventor Edward Somerset which can use wood or coal as fuel 1794 First produce of Coal Gas by William Murdoch 1853 First refinement of Kerosene by Abraham Gesner 1859 Drilling of first Oil Well by Edwin Drake 1859 Building of the first practical self-combustion engine by Etienne Lenoir Religious Background of the Inventors / Innovators Astonishingly, what the above key developments have in common, according to research by the author, is that all the inventors / innovators were Judeao-Christian in religious belief, as can be listed below according to extant data. Inventor/Innovator Place of Birth Religion Edward Somerset (1601-67) Monmouthshire, Bri tain Roman Catholic William Murdoch (1754 1839) Cumnock, Scotland Roman Catholic Abraham Gesner (1797-1864) Nova Scotia, Canada Protestant Christian Edwin Drake (1819-1880) New York, U. S. A. Jewish Jean-Joseph-Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) Mussy-la-Ville, Belgium Roman Catholic However, just as one cannot say that the inventions or innovations in fossil energy application has been due to Western Christianity, as otherwise one will fall into the post-hoc ergo procter hoc fallacy, it is likewise not valid to attribute the ecological crisis directly to Western Christianity. However, If we put the question conversely by asking that if the inventors/innovators were pantheistic, believing that the nature is sacred in itself and should be reverred, then it is highly unlikely that the inventions/innnovations had been conjured and accomplished by them. Science and Christianity It has been argued that science and christianity are coherent to each other, A British Scientist, Robert Clark, once said we may interpret the fact scientific development has only occurred in a Christian culture. The ancients had brains as good as ours. In all civilizations, Babylonia, Egypt, Greece, India, Rome, Persia, China and so on, science developed to a certain point and then stopped. It is easy to argue speculatively that science might have been able to develop in the absence of Christianity, but in fact, it never did. And no wonder. For the non*Christian world felt there was something ethically wrong about science. In Greece, this conviction was enshrined in the legend of Prometheus, the fire*bearer and prototype scientist who stole fire from heaven thus incurring the wrath of the Gods. 10 Consider also these statements from renowned scientists; William Thomson: Do not be afraid to be free thinkers. If you think strongly enough, you will be forced by science to the belief in God. Isaac Newton: This most beautiful system of the sun, planets and comets could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being , Stephen Hawking:In fact, if one considers the possible constants and laws that could have emerged, the odds against a universe that produced life like ours are immense. Conclusion This paper has attempted to examine the hypothesis of Lynn Whites that Christianity bears significant responsibility for the earths ecological crisis. The author has attempted to typologize and quote verses from the scriptures, exegeses and writings of theologians on the Biblical scriptures depicting the relationship of God, man and nature. Whilst according to the Dominion theological perspective as discussed above, the hierarchal relationship of God-gt;Man-gt;Nature (see figure 1. 3) is apparent, in the Dependence theological perspective, the hierarchal relationship of God-gt;Man ; God -gt; Nature (see figure 1. 4) is also evident. God God Man Man Nature Nature Figure 1. 3 The Dominion Perspective Figure 1. 4 The Dependence Perspective Other verses as listed under the section Passages that echo Eco-Friendly also act as a counter-argument for the Dominion hypothesis. It would seem therefore that Whites hypothesis that Western Christianity sees the world existing primarily for the benefit of man and therefore Christianity bears a huge burden of guilt is not grounded solidly, because as mentioned above, there are many verses which encourage man to be benign to our environment, and conversely, there is no single passage asking man to abuse nature for his primarily benefit only. However, if White argued that Christians bears a burden of guilt, then it is less reputable, as explained in the next paragraph. 11 If one concurs that scientific thinking is coherent to Christian belief, as discussed above, and like White argues in his paper, Western Christianity has been contributory in promoting modern science and technological advance, and from the standpoint of the analysing of advent of fossil energy as the origin of our ecological crisis, which does have tremendous detrimental impacts to our environment, it seems evident that Christians do have a direct linkage to the inventions and innovations leading to the mass scale use of fossil energy, the detrimental origin to our ecological system. Recommendations It can be said that with subtlety in the Biblical scriptures, interpretations are often contingent upon the context and the wisdom of the readers, as inspired at different times. What can be said is that given the state of development before the advent of sciences, man had been under the perpetual threats of nature, from attacks by animals, storms, sickness to famines and other disasters. The Dominion theological perspective no doubt inspired man to develop creative thinking about mastering the nature for the betterment of his lifelihood and survival, lacking which man might still be living rather primitively. The advent of sciences and most notably the Industrial Revolution can be depicted as the epitome of this mentality. As our civilization, technology and wisdom progresses, we should now be in a position to recognize that a Dominion mentality to the nature is detrimental to our environment and it is time that we revisit the scriptures to investigate whether we have overlooked an alternative theology in the Bible for seeing our relationship with nature-the Dependence approach, treating the nature as equals of ours, in which we serve god to ensure its goodness, and ensuring its long term sustainability to prepare for the Kingdom of God. 2 Bibliography Lynne White Jr (1967), The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis, reproduced in John Barr (ed), The Environmental Handbook (London: Ballantine/Friends of the Earth, 1971) pp 3-16. David Kinsley, Ecology and Religion: Ecological Spirituality in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice Hall, 1995) Richard Cameron Wyb row The Bible, Baconism, and Mastery over Nature: The Old Testament and Its Moderrn Misreading (Ph. D disserrtation, McMaster University, Hamillton Ont. Canada, 1990) p. 206 Theodore Hiebert, Professor of Old Testament at McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, Illinois. , Direction (Winnipeg, MB), 1996 Gordon Zerbe, Assistant Professor of New Testament at Canadian Mennonite Bible College, Winnipeg, Manitoba. , Direction (Winnipeg, MB), 1992 Howard Snyder, Liberating the Church: The Ecology of Church and Kingdom (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1983) 45-51. Young, Edward J. (1960) An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co. ). Archer, Gleason (1964), A Survey of Old Testament Introduction (Chicago: Moody Press). Kitchen, Kenneth (1966), Ancient Orient and Old Testament (London: Tyndale Press). Thorsheim, Peter (2006), Inventing Pollution: Coal, Smoke and Culture in Britain since 1800 13

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Writing a Case Analysis

Writing a Case Analysis Writing a Case Analysis Writing a Case Analysis: How to Cope with Case Analysis To write a good writing a case analysis, you have to be good in case analysis matters. In order to study the notion of case analysis you have to spend some definite amount of time, as this activity demands much of your attention and hard working. While you are going to read this article, it is essential to make notes in order you not to miss a single idea while reading. Success Depends on Depth of Case Study Analysis To make a successful case analysis and to manage to cope with writing a case analysis essay, you have to analyze the history of the company or business you are going to deal with in your essay and its growth in a projection of time passing. You see the past of any business is an aspect, which greatly influences the present situation of running business and the future one. That is why you have to make a thorough analysis in your writing a case analysis of the history of foundation and running the business in the past in order to evaluate the state and position of the business at the present time and in order to be able to make any business forecasts for future. Structure of the company is another point to be analyzed in your writing a case analysis, as structure is one of the key elements, which predetermines either success or failure of the company under consideration: Focus on Strong and Weak Points The following step you should make in writing a case analysis is to analyze all strong and weak points of the company under discussion, its strengths and weaknesses if speaking with the other words. External Environment Analysis Is Equally Important Analyzing external environment is that point without which it is impossible to cope with writing a case analysis in a successful way. Threats and opportunities of the market are those elements to be paid a special attention to. At this point, you have to determine the level of the ability of the company to be competitive at the market, its bargaining powers, and the existing threat of copies of the products, or if speaking with scientific language the level of threat of appearance of substitute products. Our Writers Are Ready To Help With Writing A Case Analysis These are the main steps you have to walk while writing a case analysis essay. Hope, with the help of our article you are going to write a successful work. By the way, writing a casual analysis paper is another one assignment, which is often used by the professors. If you have received a task of writing a casual analysis paper, you are welcome to visit our site and find all the necessary information you may need to write a case analysis paper. Popular posts: Science Research Paper Research Papers Proposal Research Paper Topic Ideas Research Paper no Plagiarism Research Paper Help

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Leadership models Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Leadership models - Essay Example Leadership Models or theories have been a central part of organizational management for many years. These help to make or break the workforce, and hence, the business. In this paper, four leadership models will be discussed thoroughly first. They will then be compared for any similarities and differences. Finally, their concentration on contemporary leadership issues and challenges will be analyzed, along with their implications for organizations today.The term 'leadership style' defines the "leadership model'. Style of leadership has been explained as how a person takes his team forward to achieve goals. This is the simplest definition of a layman. Good leadership is what makes effective management (Murugun, pg. 329). A model which defines this is, then, a 'Leadership Model'.Leadership has many functions that bring the team closer to their goals to carry out .The significance of leadership is reflected in the following functions: providing inspiration to employees, securing cooperat ion in the team, creating confidence among individuals, providing a conducive environment for employees, implementing changes, maintaining discipline among the members, representing them, and setting goals. (Murugun, pg.328)There are many factors that affect how a manager exerts leadership. The most important and the first one that comes to mind is his personality. The Leadership model largely depends on the nature of a manager. Moreover, the experiences of a manager also define his leadership style. He may lead in a certain way because his practices and situations in the past expect him to go forward in that manner. In addition to that, it is also based on the beliefs and values of the leader. He will also manage and lead his team according to the organization's environment, culture and needs. To get to the point, there are a number of leadership models, defined by a number of individuals. For example, Likert's leadership theories describe four kinds of leadership styles: Exploitative authoritative, Benevolent authoritative, Consultative and Participative styles (Likert 1967). Or , for example, Goleman's, Boyatzis' and McKee's (2004) six emotional leadership models: The Visionary Leader, the Coaching Leader, the Affiliative Leader, the Democratic Leader, the Pace-setting Leader and the Commanding Leader. But in this paper, we will only go over the four most common ones. The Charismatic Model adopts the Charismatic Style of Leadership, which is a style taken up by a leader who has a personality so charming and "charismatic" that he uses this to take the team forward. According to Max Weber, the term 'charisma' is used in the sense of an 'extraordinary quality' possessed by persons or objects, and is thought to give these persons a unique, magical power (Bendix 1977, pg.299). This leader is like an organizational hero who the subordinates look up to and follow strongly. They focus on making their team very different than the others. The charismatic model will only work with the kind of charismatic leader described above. The model sounds almost too good to be true, or practical. Which is the case, it is good but also not practical. The benefits of this model are apparent. Only by using pleasant phrases and appealing words and gestures, the leader can make the team get closer to his and their goals. Furthermore, he can make them believe and this belief is what fuels motivation. It could increase productivity of the workers and create a decorous, respectable environment. However, this doesn't always lead to successful results or achievement of goals, depending on the kind of team and the morale of its members. An "organizational hero" is more appreciated when the spirits of the individuals are low than when they are extremely self-confident. Moreover, according to Weber, a charismatic leader might not always be positive, for example, Adolf Hitler. In such situations this style is perceived as unethical by some because control is exercised on

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Elderly Patients and Malnutrition Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

Elderly Patients and Malnutrition - Dissertation Example Nevertheless, as previous reports establish, hospital services are insufficient to meet the nutritional needs of ill patients. Given the present scenario, the government, along with health care professionals, faces a serious problem of alleviating the risks associated with malnutrition in the elderly population. Several proposals have been made in the past to address the current issue but the problem remains unresolved. It is therefore important to reassess current approaches to nursing practice and further expand research in the field of elderly care. To date, experts have identified proper screening and management as basic responses to the current problem. However, the diverse needs of elderly patients in the hospital setting demand comprehensive approaches and resources in the nursing practice. Additionally, the availability of resources is another question. For such reasons, nurses assigned in hospitals should have a wide background of the issue and the solutions to the problem. Basic information such as the causes, symptoms, and risks of malnutrition are therefore imperative and should be considered common knowledge in the nursing practice. To address the current issue, nurses in the hospital setting should, in the first place, be aware of the symptoms and causes of malnutrition. A working definition of malnutrition should lead every health care practitioner to be aware of the problems associated with malnutrition and to be sensitive to the symptoms at-risk patients have. According to Peters (1996), malnutrition is a ‘deficiency state which occurs when inadequate proteins, calories, or specific nutrients are ingested to meet an individual’s nutritional requirements’ (p.45). Malnutrition can cause varying adverse effects on... This paper approves that the current literature offers a number of screening tools and interventions to malnutrition. Among screening tools are the MUST, GNRI, and Nursing Nutritional Checklist. Commonly, these screening tools aim to guide nurses on proper screening of at-risk patients. They also ensure communication between the nurse and the patient, giving way for patients to express their needs and apprehensions relating to hospitalisation. Screening tools also serve as guide for making recommendations to doctors, dieticians, and other health care providers. The screening tools found in the literature obviously vary in structure but they commonly aim at securing information about the patient. This paper makes a conclusion that pharmacologic therapy and giving supplements are the most successful interventions based on the literature. However, it should be clear that pharmacologic therapy was often used in the past for preventing anorexia among terminally ill patients. Therefore, future research should examine the effectiveness of the intervention to elderly patients in general, including those who are not suffering from diseases. Nevertheless, extra care should be taken when administering drugs to patients, making sure of the absence of side effects. Exercise, educating patients and their families, and minimising dietary restrictions likewise emerge as other alternatives to pharmacologic therapy in fighting the problem of malnutrition in the field of elderly care.

Monday, November 18, 2019

The question of diversity and evolution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The question of diversity and evolution - Essay Example During the process of natural selection, the offspring obtain their biological traits from the parent organism. This process of inheritance is usually geared towards developing an organism that is best suited to survive in the eternal environment in which it is being born into (Söll, Nishimura and Moore). This is accomplished through inheritance. However, inheritance encourages and increases competition. This is because the natural selection and inheritance process provides only the best genetically material for the offspring. This creates a situation where the offspring competes with the parent organism for the available resources. However, the offspring is favored to best survive in this environment owing to the fact that the new organism ideally has the best possible genetic make-up available from the parent organism to best survive in their environment. Therefore, inheritance increase and encourages competition within a given ecosystem. This concept is generally true. This is because history has shown that the next generation is usually far much improved and more efficient in survival within their environment compared to the parent organism (Gibson). A good example is the history and evolution of man. Previous species of human beings were apes. Through the process of natural selection and inheritance, modern day Homo sapiens have the ability to best survive in the changing environment as compared to previous species from which human beings originated. These previous species have become extinct due to their inability to adapt and survive and the competition that they received from their more advanced and evolved counterparts. This argument can however be challenged. This can be achieved by looking at the fact that there are numerous cases where natural selection does not improve the species that originates from the parent organism. Again, human provide the best example to this. While the natural selection

Friday, November 15, 2019

POEMS Syndrome Symptoms and Treatment

POEMS Syndrome Symptoms and Treatment POEMS Syndrome: Paraproteinemic neuropathies, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, M-protein and Skin changes Abstract The POEMS syndrome, also known as Crow-Fukase syndrome, is a rare multi organ disorder characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein spike and skin changes. Other associated features, such as sclerotic bone lesions, edema, ascites, hematological disorÂÂ ­ders and Castleman disease can also be present. We report a case of POEMS syndrome who presented with insidious onset, progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy, pedal edema, ascites, hepatomegaly along with skin changes. X-ray pelvis showed osteosclerotic lesions. Thyroid function tests showed hypothyroidism. M-protein (IgG) monoclonal band was seen on immunoelectrophoresis. The patient was started on melphalan and corticosteroid combination therapy. We emphasis on the importance of recognizing a challenging diagnosis of a rare disease, which is shown to be treatment responsive. Introduction POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic disorder of plasma cell dyscrasias, which was first described in 1956 by Crow and then in 1968 by Fukase [1]. The name POEMS was given to it by Bardwick and co-workers in 1980 based on five salient features: polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes [1]. It is more prevalent in men, with male to female ratio of 2.5:1. It usually manifests in 5th and 6th decades of life. Its inheritance is uncertain and its pathophysiology is still not well understood. Case Presentation A 40-year-old male presented with progressive weakness, tingling and numbness sensation in both lower limbs for two years. He had swelling of lower limbs, abdominal distention and dermatologic changes in form of discoloration and thickening of skin over the cheeks, nose, hands and feet for one year. He had also gave history of erectile dysfunction and loss of libido for six months. There was no history of syncope, bony pain or drug abuse. He had no previous history of hypertension, diabetes or tuberculosis. On physical examination, the patient had bilateral pedal edema [Figure 1.c] and abdominal distention [Figure 2.a]. Skin was thickened and hyperpigmented over the face, fingers of the hands and shin (Figure.1a,b,c). Bilateral gynecomastia and testicular atrophy were present. Abdominal examination showed hepatomegaly and ascites. Higher mental functions and speech were normal. Fundus examination showed papilledema on both side and rest of the cranial nerves examination were normal. Motor power in upper limbs was normal and in lower limbs showed predominant distal weakness [Medical Research Council (MRC) 4/5 at hip joint and 4-/5 at ankle joint). Deep tendon reflexes in upper limb were diminished (+1) including biceps, triceps and supinator and absent in lower limbs. There was 30% loss in pain, touch and temperature sense in both lower limbs below knees. Posterior column sensations (joint position and vibration sense) were also impaired in lower limbs below the anterior superior iliac s pine. Romberg sign was positive. Hemogram, liver and renal function tests, muscle enzymes (creatine phosphokinase), serum ferritin and vitamin B12 level were normal. Serum total protein was 7.1 gm/dL, albumin 3 gm/dL, globulin 4.1 gm/dl, and A:G ratio 1:1.3. Fasting and postprandial blood sugar level were normal. Thyroid function test showed raised TSH level (16.62 ÃŽ ¼/ml). Luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were 15 IU/L (1.8-8.6 IU/L) and 111 ng/L (300-1,000 ng/dL), respectively. Antinuclear antibody (ANA), Rheumatoid factor (RF), serum human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ELISA test, hepatitis B and C markers were negative. Ultrasonography of abdomen showed hepatomegaly (16 cm), moderate ascites and enlargement of multiple lymph nodes along the iliac vessels. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mesenteric lymph node was inconclusive. Ascitic fluid examination revealed exudative nature (SAAG Discussion POEMS syndrome is a rare, multiple system disorder, characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal or M-protein band and skin changes. Any three of the five features may be present to establish diagnosis [2]. However, some authors have proposed clinical criteria for diagnosis in which includes two major criteria, which can be either presence of polyneuropathy or plasma cell proliferative disorder. Minor criteria include sclerotic bone lesions, organomegaly, edema, endocrinopathy, papilledema or skin changes [2]. Polyneuropathy is a predominant feature of POEMS syndrome and is found in >90% of the cases. It is usually a sensorimotor, axonal and demyelinating type polyneuropathy [3]. As in our patient, both axonal and demyelinating polyneuropathy are seen on electrodiagnostic studies. The mechanism of neuropathy is not known but the recent evidence of the presence of anti-neural antibodies points to an immunological mechanism [4]. Endocrinopathies occur with a frequency of 60%-80% and the most common are gonadal failure (70%) and glucose intolerance/diabetes mellitus (50%). Hypo or hyperthyroidism, hyperprolactinemia and adrenal insufficiency have also been reported. The mechanism of endocrinopathy is also not obvious; however, involvement of direct acting antibodies against hypothalamo-hypophyseal-axis and endocrine end organs has been hypothesized [5]. In our patient, impotence, loss of libido and testicular atrophy and hypothyroidism on ancillary laboratory investigation were present. Increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are found in POEMS syndrome. VEGF increases microvascular permeability, thereby inducing edema, ascites and pleural effusions as were present in our patient [6,7]. However, measurement of VEGF level in ascites was not available in our patient. Papilledema may be seen in approximately 37% of patients and is not associated with the increase in intracranial pressure. The real cause of papilledema is not still known. Hepatomegaly may be seen in up to 50% of patients with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy occurring less often. The hyperpigmentation over the face, legs and hands was also observed in our case. The skin changes usually observed in POEMS syndrome are hyperpigmentation, lichenification, hypertrichosis, sclerodermoid changes and glomeruloid hemangiomas. Skin biopsy may show inflammation, fibrosis, or nonspecific changes. Monoclonal protein is detected in more than 90% of patients and may become positive in the follow- up of patients who have no monoclonal gammopathy initially [8]. Nearly all cases reported in the literature show lambda positivity as in our patient. It may be rarely found in urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The natural course of POEMS syndrome is chronic, with a reported median survival for a decade (8-13.8ys). The morbidity depends on the extent and number of systems involved. The cause of POEMS syndrome is still unknown. It is tempting to incriminate the presence of lambda light chains in the pathogenesis because of their unexpected frequency (more than 95% of patients), but histopathologic review of affected organs and nerves does not support that it is a form of deposition disorder. Increased levels of cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-Ã ¡ and IL-6, more specifically VEGF, appear to play a pathogenic role in the disorder [9,10]. In view of the constellation of a mixed polyneuropathy, monoclonal gammopathy, osteosclerotic myeloma, extravascular volume overload, bilateral papilledema, skin changes and endocrinopathies, our patient was diagnosed as POEMS syndrome. However, other close differential diagnosis like tuberculosis and hemochromatosis were ruled out with appropriate investigations. Patient was treated with combination of alkylating agent melphalan and corticosteroid. To conclude, when a patient present with unexplained sensorimotor polyneuropathy, signs of extravascular volume overload and evidence of other system involvement, a high index of suspicion should be kept for a diagnosis of POEMS syndrome, to avoid missing this rare syndrome, which is amenable to treatment. Figure Legends Figure 1. Photographs of patient showing skin hyperpigmentation over the face, hand and limbs (thin arrows). Thick arrow showing pitting edema over the left leg. Figure 2. Photograph of patient (a) showing abdominal distention (free fluid was confirmed by ultrasonography). X-ray pelvic bone (b) showing multiple sclerotic lesion over right iliac crest (thin arrow) and one large osteosclerotic lesion (thick arrow) over the neck of left femur (b). Figure 3. Nerve conduction study showing axonal and demyelinating neuropathy in right median nerve. Figure 4. Bone marrow smear in centre reveals one large atypical plasma cell, which has prominent nucleoli and abundant cytoplasm. There is loss of normal nuclear configuration with fraying border. References Bardwick PA, Zvaifler NJ, Gill GN, Newman D, Greenway GD, Resnick DL. Plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M proteins and skin changes: the POEMS syndrome: Report on two cases and a review of the literature. 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